Changes in the shape of a pipeline come in two basic forms. There are local features such as dents, ovalities and wrinkles, and there is bending. In most cases, deformation is caused by external influences: either natural phenomena, such as landslides, or accidental third-party actions, such as impact by excavation machinery. While pipelines are very tolerant of deformation damage due to the inherent ductility and toughness of steel, the high stresses and strains caused by these features can compromise integrity and result in failures, particularly when they are combined with other anomalies like gouges, corrosion or weld flaws. Severe deformation can also result in flow restrictions or prevent the passage of cleaning and inspection tools. Therefore, reliable means for identifying, locating, quantifying and assessing these changes in shape are critical for all pipeline operators.
In our networked and GPS-enabled world, we all take location information for granted. For many pipelines built before the days of satellites, construction survey records have been lost, and so the position is not known accurately. Rapid response to critical defects requires accurate information on the position to make sure that the right location is excavated. Cost-effective planned maintenance requires detailed data on the anomaly location. Understanding and managing geo-hazards requires a clear understanding of the transitions between stable and moving ground. Consequently, reliable information on the position of features in a pipeline, the position of the pipeline and changes in position is of great importance to all pipeline operators.
The ROSEN Group operates the largest fleet of geometry and mapping tools in the industry, paired with a variety of integrity assessments the following technologies individually or in combination assist in managing the risk presented by this threat:
RoGeo MD Service
Robust MD Technology mechanical dippers with high-resolution electronic angle detect internal-diameter (ID) anomalies in any medium. The extremely lightweight tool causes only very low friction and provides reliable data even with low operating pressure.
Our advanced geometry service is the perfect solution for many geometry inspection purposes. Fully compliant with codes and standards such as API 1163, the robust RoGeo MD Service can be used to inspect the as-built quality of a pipeline, identify third-party damage, or confirm passage for subsequent cleaning or in-line inspection tools. It is a cost-effective approach to surveying the geometric quality of pipelines ranging from 4” to 56” in ID.
The RoGeo MD Service tool is equipped with numerous calipers, ensuring outstanding detection capabilities and sizing performance. Furthermore, the optimized sensor design enables full circumferential and axial coverage. Thus, dents, buckles, bends and wrinkles, as well as other ID changes and installations, such as valves, tees, flanges and welds, can be reliably identified and sized. This helps ensure the success of subsequent inspections, as those features can cause significant changes in tool velocity, which may impact data quality negatively. An additional damping element significantly reduces lift-off behavior, and state-of-the-art passage capabilities enable the inspection of pipelines with up to 22 percent ID reduction.
- Reliable identification and sizing of pipeline ID anomalies
- Confirmation of pipeline piggability
- Optimization of data quality of subsequent inspections
RoGeo XT Service
The unique XT Technology combination of mechanical caliper measurements with eddy current proximity sensors provides unrivalled industry-renowned data sets of the highest quality for both liquid and gas pipelines. Detailed and accurate 3D representations of any geometric anomaly can be generated for visualization and modelling. Additional information includes the identification and characterization of bends and small changes in internal diameter, plus scale, debris and wax deposits profiling.
Our premium RoGeo XT service is a high-definition inspection service suitable for integrity management programs addressing dents, buckles, ovalities, stress-induced geometric features and pipeline bending. Even at comparatively low operating speeds of between 0.5 and 0.8 m/s, the RoGeo XT Service determines highly accurate feature profiles and contours that allow for precise stress- and strain-based assessments. It is the state-of-the-art inspection solution for addressing complex geometric anomalies and even combined threats such as corrosion in dents.
The RoGeo XT Service tool deploys contour-following dual-sensor technology. This allows for an exceptionally precise mapping and sizing of ID anomalies by providing full circumferential and axial coverage, even under tough operational conditions. The contactless sensors compensate typical dynamic lift-off effects at increased inspection tool speeds. In addition, the sensors differentiate between geometric features and debris, scale or wax deposits, significantly reducing false readings.
- Exact localization, profiling and contouring of geometrical features
- Detection of coincident features
- Quantitative determination of scale, debris and wax
RoGeo XYZ Service
Optimized XYZ Technology using integrated Fiber Optic Gyroscope (iFOG) and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) gives precise location and curvature data that can be used in geographic information systems, stress modelling and movement analyses.
Our high-resolution mapping services provide precise information on the pipe route that can be integrated into the customer’s GIS. The RoGeo XYZ service is a cost-effective way of producing pipeline drawings when original construction drawings may not be available. The tool can run through remote and inaccessible areas where conventional above-ground mapping surveys are impractical. In addition to providing information on the pipeline's position, RoGeo XYZ data serves as the basis for performing bending strain and pipeline movement assessments. These services are critical for addressing areas where the pipeline may have been influenced by ground movement such as landslides or settlement, or anchor strikes in offshore waters. When combined with other in-line inspection services, the RoGeo XYZ service provides critical data necessary to properly address pipeline buckles or depth of cover.
A gyro survey measures and maps the pipeline in three dimensions to give a precise depiction of its route and profile. A gyroscopic inertial measurement unit (IMU) on-board an inspection tool measures angular and linear velocity changes in the X, Y and Z axes as the tool moves through the pipeline. Gyro inspection enables the coordinates for girth welds and features to be calculated and recorded while also determining the radius of bends and identifying any departures from the as-built condition.
- Provision of precise centerline data
- Identification of areas of high bending strain and movement
- More efficient planning of field activities like maintenance work and field verifications
From Detection to Management
We know that inspection and engineering assessment must go hand in hand. Therefore, our high-end inspection technologies are complemented by a broad range of assessment services. Combining inspection and assessment reduces uncertainty, thereby increasing safety and minimizing cost. These Services include:
- Strain and stress assessments
- Bending strain and pipeline movement
- Depth-of-cover mapping
- Geo-hazard mapping
- Fatigue assessment
- Finite element analysis
- Soil loading models